Ministries and Coordination Mechanism

The Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 83 Year 2018 on Marine Debris Management, launched in September 2018, created the National Coordination Team on Marine Debris Management. The team is chaired by the Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs and the Minister of Environment and Forestry, who serves as the daily chairman. The coordination team also include 14 ministers, cabinet secretaries, and the head of the Maritime Security Agency as members (Table 1).

The coordination team is to (1) coordinate the activities of the ministries, non-ministerial institutions, regional governments, communities, and/or private sector on marine debris management; (2) make policies to surmount obstacles and solve problems regarding marine debris management; and (3) coordinate the monitoring and evaluation of action plan implementation.

Table 1. Members of the National Coordination Team on Marine Debris Management

Indonesia : Ministries and Coordination Mechanism (Table 1)

Chairman Coordinating Minister for Maritime Affairs
Daily Chairman Minister of Environment and Forestry
Member Minister of Home Affairs
Minister of Foreign Affairs
Minister of Finance
Minister of Industry
Minister of Transportation
Minister of Maritime and Fisheries Affairs
Minister of Public Works and Housing
Minister of Health
Minister of Education and Culture
Minster of Research, Technology and Higher Education
Minister of Communication and Information
Minister of National Development Planning / Head of National Development Planning Agency
Minister of Cooperative and Small and Medium Business
Minister of Tourism
Cabinet Secretary
Head of Marine Security Agency
Secretary Directorate General of Solid Waste, Waste and Hazardous and Toxic Substances Management, Ministry of Environment and Forestry
Daily Secretary Deputy Assistant of Maritime Science and Technology Utilization, Coordinating Ministry of Maritime Affairs

Source: Government of Indonesia (2018).

The National Action Plan for Marine Debris Management for 2018–2025 is attached in the presidential regulation and specifies each ministry’s role. For example, the Ministry of Industry is in charge of encouraging the growth of the recycling industry and the industry to produce degradable plastics. The Ministry of Maritime and Fisheries Affairs is in charge of, for example, constructing waste-handling facilities at fishing ports and organising movements to clean up beaches and seas. The Ministry of Public Works and Housing is in charge of waste collection infrastructure on river and waste management facilities, and stipulation of plastic waste usage as additive in road construction.


Government of Indonesia (2018), Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 83 Tahun 2018 tentang Penanganan Sampah Laut. [Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 83 Year 2018 on Marine Debris Management]. (accessed 23 October 2019).

National Laws and Regulation

Presidential Decree No. 83/2018 oversees marine debris management and originates from the Government of Indonesia’s initial target of reducing marine plastic waste by up to 70% by 2025. Comprehensive and integrated actions are needed to achieve this goal. The National Action Plan for Sea Waste Management for 2018–2025 aims to reduce the amount of waste, particularly plastic waste, in the ocean. The plan’s strategy consists of a national movement to increase awareness; encourage land- and sea-based waste management; reinforce funding, institutional, monitoring, and legal mechanisms; and promote research and development (Article 2). The institutional arrangement of the plan is described in Articles 3 to 9.

Indonesia has several laws and regulations on waste management:

Act of the Republic of Indonesia No. 18/2008 Regarding Waste Management defines waste management as waste reduction and handling (Article 19), including by reducing, recycling, and reusing waste (Article 20). Waste can be separated, collected, transported, and processed (Article 22).

Law No. 32/2009 on Environmental Protection and Management focuses on hazardous waste management, which covers waste reduction, storage, collection, transportation, utilisation, and treatment (Article 1) (Damanhuri, 2017). Discharging waste into the environment is allowed following standards and as permitted by the Minister (Article 20), while dumping without a permit is restricted (Article 60). Importation of waste or hazardous waste is strictly prohibited (Article 69).

Government Regulation No. 81/2012 on Household and Household-like Waste Management focuses on technical management of municipal solid waste, using the reduce, reuse, recycle (3R) principle (Damanhuri, 2017). Reducing the use of plastic bags is specifically mentioned (Article 11).

Regulation of the Minister of Public Works of Indonesia Number 03/PRT/M/2013 on Implementation of Infrastructure and Facilities in Handling Household Waste and Other Types of Household Waste calls for an integrated waste management plant (tempat pengolahan sampah terpadu) for dumping, sorting, recycling, processing, and final processing of waste (Article 1[16]), including plastic (Article 15[5]).

Presidential Decree No. 97/2017 on the National Policy and Strategy on Household and Household-like Waste Management focuses on the reduction and handling of household and household-like waste (Article 3). The decree cites national policies and national, provincial, district, and municipal strategies.

Presidential Decree No. 58/2017 regarding Amendments to Presidential Decree No. 3/2016 on the Acceleration of the Implementation of the National Strategic Project includes waste-to-energy projects in Jakarta, Tangerang, Bandung, Semarang, Surakarta, Surabaya, Denpasar, and Makassar in national strategic projects (Annex).

Presidential Decree No. 35/2018 on the Acceleration of the Development of Waste-to-Energy Installations with Environmental-based Technology aims to create upstream-to-downstream integrated waste management to enhance public health and environmental quality, while drastically reducing the amount of waste through conversion of waste into energy (Article 2). Besides the eight regions mentioned in the previous presidential decree on waste-to-energy installations, this decree adds South Tangerang, Bekasi, Palembang, Manado (Article 3).


Damanhuri, E. (2017), Country Chapter State of the 3Rs in Asia and the Pacific: Republic of Indonesia.[Nov%202017]%20Indonesia.pdf (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Indonesia (2013), Implementation of Infrastructure and Facilities in Handling Households Waste and Other Type of Household Waste (Regulation of the Minister of Public Works Republic of Indonesia Number 03/PRT/M/2013) (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Indonesia (2008), Law Number 18 Year 2008 Regarding Waste Management. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Indonesia (2009), Law No. 32/2009 on Environmental Protection and Management (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Indonesia (2012), Peraturan Pemerintah Republik Indonesia Nomor 81 Tahun 2012 tentang Pengelolaan Sampah Rumah Tangga dan Sampah Sejenis Rumah Tangga. [Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 81 Year 2012 on Household Waste and Household-like Waste Management]. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Indonesia (2017), Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 97 Tahun 2017 tentang Kebijakan dan Strategi Nasional Pengelolaan Sampah Rumah Tangga dan Sampah Sejenis Sampah Rumah Tangga. [Government Regulation of the Republic of Indonesia Number 81 Year 2012 on Policy and National Strategy of Household Waste and Household-like Waste Management]. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Indonesia (2017), Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 58 Tahun 2017 tentang Perubahan atas Peraturan Presiden Nomor 3 Tahun 2016 tentang Percepatan Pelaksanaan Proyek Strategis Nasional. [Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 58 Year 2017 Regarding Amendments to Presidential Decree Number 3 Year 2016 on the Acceleration of the Implementation of National Strategic Project]. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Indonesia (2018), Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 83 Tahun 2018 tentang Penanganan Sampah Laut. [Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 83 Year 2018 on Marine Debris Management]. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Indonesia (2018), Peraturan Presiden Republik Indonesia Nomor 35 Tahun 2018 tentang Percepatan Pembangunan Instalasi Pengolah Sampah menjadi Energi Listrik Berbasis Teknologi Ramah Lingkungan. [Presidential Decree of the Republic of Indonesia Number 35 Year 2018 on the Acceleration of the Development of Waste to Energy Installation with Environmental-based Technology]. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Local Regulations

Two regions in Indonesia implement regulations to reduce the use of single-use plastic.

Bali Province aims to cut the amount of plastic waste in oceans through Regulation of the Governor of Bali No. 97/2018 on Restrictions on the Generation of Disposable Plastic Waste. Targets are disposable plastics, i.e. plastic bags, styrofoam, and plastic straws (Article 4). The regulation calls for producers, distributors, suppliers, business enterprises, and providers of disposable plastics to switch to new replacement products (Articles 6 and 7). The regulation calls on individuals to do the same (Article 9) and on communities to stop using disposable plastic in their daily lives and perform preventive actions (Article 14). Administrative penalties will be imposed on those who break the regulation (Article 22 and 23).

Bogor Municipality implements Regulation of Mayor of Bogor No. 61/2018 on the Reduction of the Use of Plastic Bags. All shopping centres and modern stores are strictly prohibited from providing plastic bags starting 1 December 2018 (Article 11) and must strive to provide alternatives to plastic bags. Everyone is obliged to reduce the use of plastic bags and strongly encouraged to speak out against plastic bags’ danger to the environment (Article 13).


Government of Bali (2018), Peraturan Gubernur Bali Nomor 97 Tahun 2018 tentang Pembatasan Timbulan Sampah Plastik Sekali Pakai. [Regulation of the Governor of Bali Number 97 Year 2018 on the Restrictions on the Generation of Disposable Plastic Waste]. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Government of Bogor (2018), Peraturan Wali Kota Bogor Nomor 61 Tahun 2018 tentang Pengurangan Penggunaan Kantong Plastik. [Regulation of Mayor of Bogor Number 61 Year 2018 on the Reduction of the Use of Plastic Bags]. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Action Plans and Roadmaps

Indonesia has set an ambitious target to reduce marine plastic debris by 70% in 2025. To achieve that, the country launched Indonesia’s Plan of Action on Marine Plastic Debris 2017–2025, which consists of five main pillars.

  1. Behavioural change improvement

Relevant stakeholders are responsible for maintaining the effectivity and effectiveness of marine plastic debris management. The Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs has promoted partnerships between ministries and non-governmental stakeholders across the country.

  1. Land-based leakage reduction

Considering that a huge amount of plastic waste from streets and housing ends up in the ocean, the Government of Indonesia is promoting research and production of plastic alternatives to minimise the negative impacts of plastic pollution on the marine ecosystem and human beings.

  1. Sea-based leakage reduction

Besides land-based sources, marine plastic pollution can be generated from sea-based sources such as ships, fishing lines, and pleasure boats. This effort will directly collect plastic debris using technology and will be supported by promoting waste management facilities in ports, improving environmental awareness, and involving small islands and coastal areas.

  1. Reduction of plastic production and use

This effort aims to encourage plastic producers to switch to using recycled plastic and produce more biodegradable plastics.

  1. Funding mechanism enhancement, policy transformation, and law enforcement

Regional and national budgets are planned to be the main source of funding for the national action plan. However, it is expected that international organisations and partner countries can take part in funding the project. Collaborations between ministries, non-governmental stakeholders, and cross-sector actors are encouraged to achieve the project’s target.

The five pillars above are broken down into several strategies:

  1. At the local level, the river catchment authority should filter plastic waste from the river. Municipalities should manage waste properly. Other activities being promoted are improving human and funding resources, infrastructure management, and behavioural change, and creating integrated coastal waste management.
  2. At the national level, the government is reorganising relevant agencies to deal with upstream landfill. Several activities are also promoted, such as enhancement of stakeholders’ awareness through education and campaign; promotion of waste-to-energy projects; enforcement of regulations on paid plastic bags; utilisation of plastic waste for useful materials; and enhancement of plastic waste regulation in seaports, shipping, and fishing lines.
  3. At the international level, bilateral and regional cooperation will be encouraged.
  4. Industrial sectors  are encouraged to use biodegradable plastics and acknowledge the circular economy concept. The biodegradable plastic industry is expected to receive foreign investment.
  5. The involvement of academics and community service organisations is promoted to foster innovations for new and efficient technologies to deal with the marine plastic problem.

Realising the seriousness of the marine plastic issue and the need to take innovative action, the Government of Indonesia partnered with the Global Plastic Action Partnership in early 2019 to launch the National Plastic Action Partnership (NPAP). The main goal of NPAP is to support Indonesia’s National Action Plan on Marine Debris to reduce marine plastic debris by 70% in 2025. In the longer term, NPAP has a more ambitious goal – to reach near-zero plastic pollution by 2040.

The principal task of NPAP is to involve multiple stakeholders, such as government, industry, and civil society, to work together to reduce marine plastic by 70% by 2025. NPAP has formulated five points of action:

  1. Reduce or replace the use of plastic to keep plastic consumption to 1 million tonnes by 2025.
  2. Upgrade the design of 500,000 tonnes of plastic products and packaging to accommodate reuse or high-value recycling.
  3. Increase the plastic collection rate from 39% to 84% by 2025 by fostering state funding and informal or private sector collection systems.
  4. Double recycling capacity up to an additional 975,000 tonnes per year by 2025.
  5. Develop controlled waste disposal facilities to manage an additional 3.3 million tonnes of plastic waste per year by 2025.

Ten movements aim to accelerate the five actions above:

  1. Reduce or substitute plastics through policies, targets, and incentives.
  2. Shift to 100% recyclable, reusable, and compostable plastics.
  3. Enforce solid waste management plans as well as their implementation, initiatives, and monitoring.
  4. Create an integrated and supportive waste and recycling system for informal waste workers and companies.
  5. Create co-funded industries.
  6. Promote capital investment for infrastructure and funding of waste management.
  7. Arrange capacity building, training, and skills development.
  8. Foster public engagement and behaviour change activities.
  9. Facilitate innovation and incubation of new solutions.
  10. Expand collaboration between stakeholders.


Government of Indonesia (2017), Indonesia’s Plan of Action on Marine Plastic Debris 2017–2025. (accessed 14 April 2021).

World Economic Forum (2020), Radically Reducing Plastic Pollution in Indonesia: A Multistakeholder Action Plan (accessed 22 March 2021).