Ministries and Coordination Mechanism

Coordination in the Philippines on addressing specific marine plastic issues is limited as it is still developing the National Strategy on Marine Litter for the Master Plan on Marine Plastics Management. The country manages solid waste through the National Solid Waste Management Commission under the Office of the President. The commission has 14 members from government agencies and 3 members from the private sector. Table 1 shows the membership structure of the commission.

Table 1. Membership Structure of the National Solid Waste Management Commission

The Philippines : Ministries and Coordination Mechanism (Table 1)

Chairman Secretary of Department of Environment and Natural Resources
Vice Chairman Representative of Private Sector
Secretariat Director of Environmental Management Bureau
Members Department of the Interior and Local Government
Department of Trade and Industry
Department of Science and Technology
Department of Agriculture
Department of Health
Department of Public Works and Highways
Technical Education and Skills Development Authority
Metropolitan Manila Development Authority
Philippine Information Agency
Department of Environment and Natural Resources
League of Provinces of the Philippines
League of Cities of the Philippines
League of Municipalities of the Philippines
League of Barangays of the Philippines
Recycling Industry
Plastic Industry
Non-government Organisation

Source: EMB (2019).

The commission seeks to enhance the implementation of Republic Act (RA) No. 9003 or the Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000, signed in 2001. At the national level, the commission prepares the National Solid Waste Management Framework with the Department of Environment and Natural Resources as chair, in coordination with the Department of Health and other concerned agencies, using the National Solid Waste Management Status Report as basis. At the local government level, coordination covers local solid waste management planning and management, technical and other capability building, incentive schemes, education and campaigns, and other related tasks. The commission is tasked to establish the National Ecology Center, which will serve as the centre of information, research, database, training, and networking services to implement the Act. The centre shall engage a multi-sectoral, multi-disciplinary pool of experts from the academe, business, and industry; inventors; practicing professionals; youth; women; and other concerned sectors.

The National Pollution Control Commission and the National Environmental Protection Council coordinate with each other although their responsibility for marine plastic litter is limited.

Presidential Decree No. 984 lists the responsibilities of the National Pollution Control Commission, one of which is to govern the issuance of permits for sewage work and industrial waste disposal systems. The commission is attached to the Inter-Agency Advisory Council, headed by a commissioner appointed by the President of the Philippines. The commission is composed of representatives from the departments of agriculture; health; industry; justice; labour; local government and community development; national defence; natural resources;  and public works, transportation, and communications; and the heads of the Laguna Lake Development Authority, National Economic and Development Authority, National Science Development Board, and Human Settlements Commission.

The National Environment Protection Council was established under Presidential Decree No. 1121 to focus on national environment protection measures, including those on used packaging and movement of controlled waste. The commission is composed of the President of the Philippines as chairman, the secretary of natural resources as executive officer, and, as members, the presidential assistant for development; the secretaries of public highways; local government and community development; industry; national defence; and public works, transportation, and communications; the heads of the Energy Development Board, Budget Commission, National Pollution Control Commission, National Science Development Board, and Human Settlements Commission; and the board of the Environmental Center of the Philippines.


Environmental Management Bureau (EMB) (2019), Members (accessed 23 October 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (1976), Presidential Decree No. 984 (accessed 05 November 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (1977), Presidential Decree No. 1121 (accessed 05 November 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (2000), Republic Act No. 9003 (accessed 04 November 2019).

National Laws and Regulation

Littering has been prohibited since 1975 through Presidential Decree No. 825. In 1976, Presidential Decree No. 979 declared as national policy the prevention and control of the pollution of seas by waste dumping. The National Pollution Control Commission promulgates the national policy on marine pollution whilst the Philippine Coast Guard enforces it. The plastic issue is addressed with a holistic approach to solid waste management under Republic Act (RA) No. 9003 (Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000). Section 2(a) of the Act intends the adoption of a systematic, comprehensive, and ecological solid waste management programme to ensure the protection of public health and the environment. Local collaboration is highly encouraged to support the Act. Section 13 of Article X of the 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines states: ‘Local government units may group themselves, consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services, and resources for purposes commonly beneficial to them in accordance with law’. Section 33 of RA No. 7160 (Local Government Code of 1991) elaborates on technical guidance to this effort: ‘In support of such undertakings, the local government units (LGUs) involved may, upon approval by the sanggunian (legislative council) concerned, after a public hearing conducted for the purpose, contribute funds, real estate, equipment, and other kinds of property and appoint or assign personnel under such terms and conditions as may be agreed upon by the participating local units through Memoranda of Agreement’. Pursuant to Section 33 of RA No. 7160, Section 44 of RA No. 9003 mandates all provinces, cities, municipalities, and barangays, through appropriate ordinances, to consolidate or coordinate their efforts, services, and resources to jointly address common solid waste management problems and/or establish common waste disposal facilities.

RA No. 9003 mandates barangays and municipalities or cities to segregate and collect solid waste. The Technical Guidelines for Municipal Solid Waste Disposal are imposed in Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) Administrative Order No. 49 Series of 1998. Section 10 of the RA No. 9003 says the barangay will be responsible for biodegradable, compostable, and reusable wastes, provided that the municipality or city shall be responsible for non-recyclable materials and special wastes. In support of the mandate, the provincial solid waste management board (chaired by the provincial governor) and the city and municipal solid waste management board shall be established (Sections 11 and 12 of RA No. 9003). A main function of the provincial solid waste management board is to allow the clustering of LGUs to solve common solid waste management problems.

Ecological solid waste management shall be based on the following hierarchy (DENR, 2015):

  • Source reduction (avoidance) and minimisation of waste generated at source
  • Reuse, recycling, and resource recovery of wastes at the barangay level
  • Efficient collection, proper transfer, and transport of wastes by city or municipality
  • Efficient management of residuals and of final disposal sites and/or any other related technologies for the destruction or reuse of residuals

The barangay plays important roles in the second hierarchy. Section 32 of RA No. 9003 provides for the establishment of a material recovery facility in every barangay or cluster of barangays. The facility shall receive mixed waste for final sorting, segregation, composting, and recycling, whilst resulting residual wastes shall be transferred to a long-term storage or disposal facility or sanitary landfill (DENR, 2015). Section 37 of RA No. 9003 prohibits open dumping within 3 years after the effectivity of the Act and prohibits controlled dumping for 5 years following the effectivity of the Act.

To support RA No. 9003, the government enacted RA No. 9512 (Environmental Awareness and Education Act), which integrates environmental education in curricula at all levels of public and private schools; barangay day-care centres; preschools; and schools that offer non-formal, technical vocational, professional, indigenous learning, and out-of-school youth courses or programmes. Education will cover environmental concepts and principles; environmental laws; the state of international and local environments; local environmental best practises; the threats of environmental degradation and its impact on human well-being; the responsibility of the citizenry to the environment; and the value of conservation, protection, and rehabilitation of natural resources and the environment in the context of sustainable development.


Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (2015), National Solid Waste Management Status Report (2008–2014). DENR. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (1975), Presidential Decree No. 825 (accessed 29 October 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (1976), Presidential Decree No. 979. (accessed 04 November 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (1987), 1987 Constitution of the Republic of the Philippines (accessed 23 October 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (1991), Republic Act No. 7160 (accessed 23 October 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (1993), DENR Administrative Order No. 49 Series of 1998 (accessed 29 October 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (2000), Republic Act No. 9003 (accessed 23 October 2019).

Republic of the Philippines (2000), Republic Act No. 9512 (accessed 23 October 2019).

Local Regulations

Local governments have limited legal instruments to manage solid waste. Local governments are mainly directed to implement RA No. 9003 (Ecological Solid Waste Management Act of 2000). They are mandated to consolidate or coordinate efforts, services, and resources to jointly address common solid waste management problems and/or establish common waste disposal facilities. The types of consolidation or coordination are the inter-government or inter-LGU partnership and the private enterprise utilised by LGUs. Both types of consolidation or coordination are implemented through memorandums of agreement or contracts.

Examples of partnership under the Act are manifested in several regulations issued by the municipality of Los Baños and Quezon City.

1. Municipality of Los Baños

Solid waste management, especially anti-littering and waste segregation efforts,  in Los Baños was given much attention in 2001 when its mayor started the solid waste management programme through Municipal Ordinance No. 2001-08 (Atienza, 2008). The ordinance mandates the strict implementation of waste and segregation scheme, collection schedules for biodegradable and non-biodegradable wastes, and penalties for non-compliance. Municipal Ordinance No. 2008-752 was later passed to regulate the use of plastic bags and styrofoam. The ordinance prohibits the use of plastic bags for dry goods and controls the use of plastic bags for wet goods. The use of styrofoam is banned.

About 6 years after its implementation, the ordinance was expanded through Municipal Ordinance No. 2014-1316, (The Expanded Plastic Ordinance of the Municipality of Los Baños) (Los Baños Times, 2016), which now prohibits the use of plastic drinking straws, cups, plates, and spoons and forks.

2. Quezon City

The Quezon City government encourages all barangays to practise solid waste management through Ordinance No. SP-1203, S-2002 (Best Solid Waste Management Incentives in Barangays) (Atienza, 2011). This ordinance enables barangays to receive financial assistance from the city government for practising the best solid waste management. To avail itself of the assistance, the barangay must (1) have a comprehensive solid waste management plan prepared by the barangay and approved by the city, (2) have managed solid waste for at least 6 months and reduced the volume of solid waste by at least 25%, and (3) have an ecological or recycling centre or material recovery facility. Ordinance No. SP-1191, S-2002 offers incentives to barangays that use their own trucks to collect solid waste.


Atienza, V. A. (2008), ‘Breakthroughs in Solid Waste Management: Lessons From Selected Municipality and Barangay in the Philippines’, Asian Review of Public Administration XX(1-2), pp.82–98.

Atienza, V. A. (2011), ‘Review of the Waste Management System in the Philippines: Initiatives to Promote Waste Segregation and Recycling through Good Governance’, in M. Kojima and E. Michida (eds.) Economic Integration and Recycling in Asia: An Interim Report. Institute of Developing Economies, pp.65–97.

Los Baños Times (2016), A Plastic Story. (accessed 25 October 2019).

Quezon City Council (2001), Ordinance No. SP-1203, S-2002,%20s%202002-1.pdf (accessed 25 October 2019).

Action Plans and Roadmaps

The National Solid Waste Management Commission Resolution No. 1441, Series of 2021, adopting the National Plan of Action for the Prevention, Reduction and Management of Marine Litter (NPOA-ML) was approved on 12 May 2021. The NPOA-ML was then adopted in August 2021 based on Memorandum Circular No. 2021-10 of the Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR)

The NPOA-ML provides a blueprint to enhance efforts in resource and waste management and to bring an additional lens to marine litter issues and control additional leakage of waste into the bodies of water. It aims for ‘zero waste to Philippine waters by 2040’ towards the vision of ‘a Philippines free of marine litter through shared responsibility, accountability, and participatory governance

Two clusters of action have been classified: (1) programmatic cluster, which focuses on maximising common implementation of sectoral initiatives; and (2) enabling and cross-cutting cluster, which covers cross-sectoral initiatives. The clusters consist of 10 strategies and 35 actions (Table 1).

Table 1. Strategies and Actions in the National Plan of Action for the Prevention, Reduction and Management of Marine Litter

Philippines : Action Plans and Roadmaps (Table 1)

No. Action Expected Outcome Lead Authority* Timeline
Programmatic cluster
1. Establish science- and evidence-based baseline information on marine litter
1.1 Develop national research framework and programme for monitoring and assessment of marine litter National programme on monitoring and assessment of marine litter and microplastics DENR-EMB/ERDB, DOST Research Councils 2021–2022
1.2 Standardise methodology and appropriate data collection system for marine litter information Nationally standardised methodology and information system for baselining marine litter leakage and accumulation from all

1.3 Carry out a national baseline assessment on waste leakage and accumulation of marine litter Assessed, compiled, and published definitive national marine litter baseline DENR-EMB/BMB/ERDB,

DOST Research Councils
1.4 Make available and accessible science- and evidence-based and vetted information on national marine litter baselines Clearinghouse and data management system for national baseline information; networks

for information dissemination
DENR 2023 onwards
2. Mainstream circular economy (CE) and sustainable consumption and production (SCP) initiatives
2.1 Map out existing and support research and innovation for CE/SCP in the context of marine litter prevention and reduction Innovation centres and networks established for CE/SCP; tested,

incubated, and made accessible to all sectors prototypes based on existing life-cycle sustainability assessment studies

academe, research and development institutes, private sector
2021 onwards
2.2 Develop stakeholder- and industry-led marine litter strategy roadmaps to reduce marine litter with set targets within a prescribed timeframe Developed roadmaps for industry (material- specific) and start-ups, micro, small, and medium-sized enterprises, with set targets within agreed upon time frame Private sector, companies along the value chain, marine-based industries 2021–2022
2.3 Develop and implement an extended stakeholder responsibility (ESR) system applicable in the Philippine context, along the manufacturing–retail value chain, and ensure integration of the informal and semi-formal waste sector as well as communities National definition and framework for ESR; ESR readiness and policy studies for packaging; legislation initiated for a phase-

wise approach to implementation
Congress/ policymakers, DENR, DTI 2021–2025
2.4 Develop and implement a plan for a phase-wise shift to inclusive circularity Action plans and complementary policies/actions on implemented CE/SCP initiatives DTI-BOI/BPS, DENR, private sector 2021 onwards
2.5 Provide other enabling policies and systems for CE/SCP Strengthened enabling environment for sustainable products/services Congress/ policymakers, DENR, DTI 2021 onwards
3. Enhance recovery and recycling coverage and markets
3.1 Strengthen domestic recycling industry for all types of materials and enable mechanisms for recyclables market creation and scaling with the involvement of all stakeholders along the value chain Updated study, framework, and master plan on recycling system; updated standards for products and procurement DTI, DBM, recycling industry and value

chain actors, including informal waste sector
2021 onwards
3.2 Establish and link markets for recyclables and recycled materials, with priority on locally recovered materials Inventory of markets, including prices; improved logistics for LGUs nationwide; stable prices for recyclables DTI, NSWMC, DENR 2021 onwards
3.3 Support efforts of local government units on segregated collection, materials recovery, and processing Increased capacities (in tonnes) of segregated, collected, and processed recyclable and potentially recyclable materials DENR, DILG, NSWMC, LGUs 2021 onwards
3.4 Explore options for management of residual waste, including waste-to-energy option Reduction in land disposal of biodegradable or low- value residuals DENR 2021 onwards
4. Prevent leakage from collected or disposed waste
4.1 Enforce appropriate monitoring measures and regulations on waste collection practices and equipment and against illegal dumping of waste collected by any entity Reduced leakage of collected waste into the riverine and marine environment; monitored and enforced proper waste collection DENR-EMB, DILG, MMDA, LGUs, NSWMC 2021 onward
4.2 Prioritise safe closure and rehabilitation of active or abandoned dumpsites, and waste processing or disposal facilities located in unsuitable sites. Closure of 100% of dumpsites; rehabilitation of waste-processing facilities operating as dumpsites DENR-EMB, DILG, NSWMC 2021–2025
4.3 Establish environmentally sound infrastructure, identify gaps, and provide funding for solid waste treatment and disposal Revisited standards for solid waste management (SWM) facilities in light of marine litter; start of construction of sanitary landfills servicing 100% of total residual waste generation; waste treatment/diversion facilities to cater to at least 25% of total or targets set in the Philippine Development Plan DENR-EMB, DILG, NEDA, NSWMC 2021–2030
5. Reduce maritime sources of marine litter
5.1 Mainstream marine litter lens in national marine and maritime policies, which are informed by and for eventual customisation, to local needs Reviewed, issued/enacted, or amended as necessary, and localised national policies in view of marine litter prevention and management NCWC, DOTr, DENR-EMB/BMB 2021–2024
5.2 Ensure effective and efficient ship waste management, transport, treatment, recovery, and disposal at national and municipal ports Access of ships and ports to waste management services and facilities; agreed upon inter-

agency monitoring and data-sharing systems; established digital waste tracking system; established port waste reception facilities in accordance with standards; capacitated ships and ports with

waste management procedures
5.3 Prevent, recover, and manage abandoned, lost, and discarded fishing gears (ALDFG), seaweed-growing media, and aquaculture floaters. Reduction in observed ALDFG/aquaculture gears disposed/abandoned; increased fished-out litter DA-BFAR, DILG, NCWC, DENR 2021 onwards
6. Manage existing litter in riverine and marine environments
6.1 Develop sustainable clean-up programmes and schemes, prioritising hotspots for existing marine litter Regularly conducted, monitored, evaluated, and reported riverine and coastal clean-up (alongside social marketing and wide- scale awareness campaigns as elaborated

in Section 9)
DENR, other mandamus agencies, LGUs 2021 onwards
6.2 Employ technology-based solutions to collect and capture marine litter as support measures in the implementation of local SWM programmes Adopted existing and innovative solutions and engineering intervention measures DENR, DOST 2020 onwards
Enabling and cross-cutting cluster
7. Enhance policy support and enforcement for marine litter prevention and management
7.1 Mainstream marine litter lens in national policies and programmes Marine litter management mainstreamed into national policies and programmes NEDA, DENR, DILG, DA-BFAR, NSWMC, DTI, Congress, NCWC, DOTr, DOST 2021 onwards
7.2 Mainstream marine litter lens in local development, sectoral and investment plans, policies, and budgeting Marine litter mirrored in local environmental ordinances, programmes, and budgets DILG, LGU

associations, DENR, Congress
2021 onwards
7.3 Enhance monitoring and enforcement of marine litter-relevant laws, specifically through existing law enforcement bodies Enforcement mechanisms viewed with a marine litter lens and strengthened DENR 2021 onwards
7.4 Participate in other venues of influence towards a global and regional governance and information-sharing framework for across-the-board actions by nation-states, business, scientific community, and the public Archipelagic and developing country perspective shared in inter-governmental

processes towards international cooperation
Country representatives 2021 onwards
8. Develop and implement strategic and targeted social marketing and communications campaigns using various media
8.1 Formulate an effective national social marketing and strategic communication plan for marine litter prevention and management National social marketing and strategic communication plan for marine litter prevention and management DENR 2021 onwards
8.2 Implement massive campaigns and outreach programmes that target specific stakeholders to take interest in connecting their day-to-day actions with marine litter impacts and do their share Massively implemented social marketing campaigns with links to infrastructures or systems LGUs, DENR, DepEd, CHED, TESDA, DSWD 2021 onwards
8.3 Capacitate national agencies and LGUs on relevant laws and measures for the prevention and management of marine litter, including strategic training rollout Capacitated NGAs, LGUs, and other implementers/message conduits DENR, PCOO/PIA, DILG 2022 onwards
8.4 Incorporate marine litter issues, SCP, waste management, environmental concerns, and shared responsibility in school curriculums by building on the provisions of Republic Act (RA) 9512 and RA 9003. Marine litter lens is reflected in the National Environmental Education Action Plan and academic and vocational curriculums DepEd, CHED, TESDA, DENR, SUCs/HEIs 2022 onwards
9. Enable sufficient and cost-effective financing and other institutional resource requirements for the implementation of the NPOA-ML
9.1 Identify and address barriers to private-sector investments or public–private partnerships aimed at reducing marine litter Baseline and policy analysis and recommendations to address the barriers to private sector investment DOF, NEDA, DTI, DENR, NSWMC, PPP Center 2022
9.2 Provide sufficient national government budget for NPOA-ML implementation Proposed and approved national budget through annual budget appropriations DBM, NEDA, Congress 2022
9.3 Ensure LGUs have adequate resources Local budget is supplemented by national budget; resources made available and

accessible by LGUs
DBM, DILG 2022
10. Strengthen LGU capacities and local-level implementation of NPOA-ML
10.1 Develop a roadmap for the local-level implementation of the NPOA-ML Roadmap for NPOA-ML localisation, in consideration of gender and development, climate change, livelihood lens, and care

for the informal sector and vulnerable groups
DILG, DENR, LGU leagues 2020–2021
10.2 Conduct capacity building and support best practice sharing/learning to enhance technical competencies of LGUs and clusters of LGUs Enhanced capacity of LGUs on marine litter prevention and management DILG, DENR, LGU leagues 2021 onwards
10.3 Ensure continuity of good local marine litter-relevant programmes amidst local political transition/turnovers Institutionalised long-term sustainability criteria and reinforcement mechanisms, with organisational structure and annual budget; enhanced political will; formulated and implemented rewards and penalty systems for LGUs DILG, DENR, NSWMC 2021 onwards

CHED – Commission on Higher Education; DA-BFAR – Department of Agriculture-Bureau of Fisheries and Aquatic Resources; DBM – Department of Budget and Management; DENR – Department of Environment and Natural Resources; DENR-BMB – Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Biodiversity Management Bureau; DENR-EMB – Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Environmental Management Bureau; DENR-ERDB – Department of Environment and Natural Resources-Ecosystems Research and Development Bureau; DepEd – Department of Education; DICT – Department of Information and Communications Technology; DILG – Department of the Interior and Local Government; DOF – Department of Finance; DOST – Department of Science and Technology; DOTr – Department of Transportation; DSWD – Development of Social Welfare and Development; DTI – Department of Trade and Industry; DTI-BOI – Department of Trade and Industry-Board of Investments; DTI-BPS – Department of Trade and Industry-Bureau of Philippine Standards; HEIs – higher education institutions; LGU – local government unit; MARINA – Maritime Industry Authority; MMDA – Metro Manila Development Authority; NCWC – National Coast Watch Center; NEDA – National Economic and Development Authority; NGAs – national government agencies; NSWMC – National Solid Waste Management Commission; PCG – Philippine Coast Guard; PCOO – Presidential Communications Operations Office; PIA – Philippine Information Agency; PPP Center – Public–Private Partnership Center; SUCs – state universities and colleges; TESDA – Technical Education and Skills Development Authority

Source: DENR (2021b).

Section 5 of the circular declares that all initiatives and targets provided in the NPOA-ML shall be translated into operational plan indicating targets until 2040. The DENR is authorised to coordinate partners in implementing and mainstreaming the NPOA-ML with the plans proposed by local government units and other government agencies.

Institutional capacity to support the operationalisation and localisation of the NPOA-ML will be strengthened through the UN–Habitat Philippines’ Healthy Oceans and Clean Cities Initiative (HOCCI) (UN–Habitat, 2021), a regional project funded by the Government of Japan.

HOCCI’s main objective is to localise the NPOA-ML in six partner cities in the Philippines (Manila, Calapan, Legazpi, Ormoc, Cagayan De Oro, and Davao). Many activities will be conducted, amongst which are (PACE, 2021):

  1. Waste surveys using Waste Wise Cities Tool
  2. Workshops of city stakeholders on 3Rs
  3. Developing a marine litter action plan
  4. Implementation of the pilot projects
  5. Development of knowledge products, capacity-building, and/or information, education, and communication
  6. Development of three policy papers
  7. Monitoring and evaluation of progress in implementing the City Plan of Action on Marine Litter (CPOA-ML)
  8. Sharing good practices, lessons learnt, and future actions.

The partner cities are developing their CPOA-ML, anchored on the 10 strategies of the NPOA-ML. They will be the first cities in the Philippines to have a localised version of the NPOA-ML.

Another related action plan is mentioned in Section 16 of RA No. 9003, which states: ‘Province, city or municipality, through its local solid waste management boards, shall prepare its respective 10-year solid waste management plans consistent with the National Solid Waste Management Framework’. The plan, which should substantially include all the components identified and mandated in RA No. 9003, shall be submitted for review and approval to the National Solid Waste Management Commission (DENR, 2015). An example of the proposed plan is the 10-year (2014–2024) solid waste management plan of the municipality of Rizal in Laguna Province.


Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (2015), National Solid Waste Management Status Report (2008–2014). DENR. (accessed 23 October 2019).

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (2021a), DENR Memorandum Circular No. 2021-10. (accessed 12 October 2021).

Department of Environment and Natural Resources (DENR) (2021b), National Plan of Action for the Prevention, Reduction and Management of Marine Litter (accessed 6 June 2022).

PACE (2021), Healthy Oceans and Clean Cities Initiative. (accessed 12 October 2021).

Republic of the Philippines (2000), Republic Act No. 9003 (accessed 21 October 2021).

UN-Habitat (2021), Healthy Oceans and Clean Cities Initiative. (accessed 12 October 2021).