Ministries and Coordination Mechanism
Several ministries are involved in waste management (Table 1).
Table 1. Ministries Responsible for Waste Management in Viet Nam
Viet Nam : Ministries and Coordination Mechanism (Table 1)
|Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment||Direction of waste and hazardous waste management|
|Ministry of Construction||Establishment of master plans and guidelines for waste treatment facilities, and management of waste from construction and demolition|
|Ministry of Agriculture and Development||Management of agricultural and rural waste|
|Ministry of Health||Management of solid waste from hospitals and other medical establishments|
|Ministry of Industry and Trade||Industrial waste management and development of environment-friendly industry|
Source: Thang (2017).
The Viet Nam Environment Administration (VEA) works directly under the Ministry of Natural Resources and Environment on national environment-related matters. Under VEA, the Waste Management and Environment Promotion Agency authorizes state waste management (Thang, 2017).
Thang, N . T.(2017), Country Chapter State of the 3Rs in Asia and the Pacific: The Socialist Republic of Vietnam. http://www.uncrd.or.jp/content/documents/5696[Nov%202017]%20Vietnam.pdf (accessed 3 October 2019).
National Laws and Regulation
Viet Nam has several national legal frameworks on marine pollution and waste management:
Decree No. 59/2007 on Solid Waste Management
The decree regulates the management, rights, obligations, and activities related to solid waste (Article 1). Solid waste management has several basic principles (Article 4): first, entities that dispose of solid waste should pay the collection, transportation, and disposal fees; second, waste should be separated at source; third, technologies to process hard-to-decompose solid waste must be prioritised; and fourth, socialisation of a proper waste management must be promoted by the state. The rest of the decree regulates solid waste planning and investment (Chapter II); solid waste separation (Chapter III); solid waste collection, storage, and transportation (Chapter IV); solid waste disposal (Chapter V); expenses of solid waste management (Chapter VI); and inspection, monitoring, and violations (Chapter VII).
Circular No. 121/2008 on Guiding Incentive Mechanism and Financial Supports for Investment in Solid Waste Management
The circular mandates organisations and individuals that invest in waste disposal facilities to obtain permission to invest in solid waste disposal facility from the state agency, design investment to be in line with the local land use planning (under approval of relevant stakeholders), implement capable technology with economic and technical efficiency, fulfil legal provisions on construction and environmental protection, and provide the right size and standards of solid waste disposal facilities according to the Prime Minister (Chapter II).
The Law No. 14/2010 on Environmental Protection Tax
Plastic bags are categorized as taxable objects (Article 3) and subject to an environmental tax of VND30,000–50,000/kg (Article 5).
Circular No. 12/2011 on Hazardous Waste Management
The circular classifies hazardous waste, describes hazardous waste management, and examines environmental impact assessments of hazardous waste management facilities (Article 1). Registered hazardous waste generators must fulfil the hazardous waste management practice conditions to obtain a license to manage hazardous waste, after which they must ensure various matters regarding management, such as vehicles and equipment, places to store the waste temporarily, and treatment (Article 9).
Decision No. 31/2014 on Support Mechanism for the Development of Power Generation Projects using Solid Waste(s) in Viet Nam
The decision states that the master plan to develop power plants using solid waste must refer to the solid waste potentials in each relevant period. The master plan also must be relevant to the social and economic condition of the country, regional master plan, and solid waste management master plan (under approval of relevant stakeholders) (Article 3). Investment in the project must conform with legal provisions on construction, fire prevention, and environmental protection (Article 6).
The Construction Law No. 50/2014
Solid waste collection and treatment facilities are categorized as technical infrastructure (Article 3, number 22). The Ministry of Construction is authorized to create technical regulation guidelines for specialized construction works (Article 6, number 6).
Law No. 82/2015 on Marine and Island Resources and Environment
Throwing waste on islands and sandbanks and in shallow zones is restricted (Article 41). Five actions are taken to manage marine and island environmental pollution: (i) performing preventive actions, (ii) setting sea areas as pollution-prone zones to implement effective solutions, (iii) controlling land- and sea-based waste by considering the capacity of the sea and islands, (iv) responding to and preventing the spread of pollution during environmental marine emergencies, and (v) cooperating with stakeholders to manage marine and island environmental pollution (Article 42). Hazardous waste must be managed based on the law on environmental protection (Article 45). Before it is disposed of in the sea, land-based waste from production, business, or daily-life activities must be controlled according to environmental technical regulations (Article 46). Potential sources of sea pollution should be rigorously managed. Regarding dumping waste into the sea, the regulation specifies the license that should be obtained, the allowed materials, the permits, the rights of parties that have obtained the permits, and management of dumping (Section 3, Chapter IV).
Decree No. 38/2015 on the Management of Wastes and Scraps
Plastic is considered reusable and recyclable waste (Article 15.) All recyclable waste shall be recycled and reused (Article 50). Importers of plastic scrap must pay a deposit, the amount of which depends on the volume of the scrap: 15% of total cost for scrap under 100 tons, up to 20% for scrap over 500 tons.
Environmental Protection Law 2020
The Environmental Protection Law 2020 was enacted to replace the 2014 regulation. Article 11 of the new law states that any disposal of waste into the marine environment must be examined thoroughly to meet the standard of environmental protection. Potential risks to seas and islands as well as exploitation activities that extract benefits from the seas and islands must be investigated and follow relevant laws. Stakeholders must coordinate to protect the marine environment.
Article 73 discusses plastic waste management, where organisations and individuals responsibly use and manage plastic waste, such as by limiting plastic use and disposing of waste into the environment. Plastic waste generated by the tourism sector and other marine services must be properly collected, stored, and distributed to recycling and disposal facilities. The use of environmentally friendly packaging as a substitute for plastic packaging must be supported by the relevant law. In general, plastic waste must be collected and properly classified. The state is responsible for promoting reuse and recycling, as well as encouraging research and development and policies for plastic waste management. The provincial government is responsible for directing collection and processing of waste at the local level. The relevant government should develop a road map to limit the production and import of single-use plastic products, non-biodegradable plastic packaging, and products containing microplastics.
Government of Viet Nam (2007), Decree No. 59/2007/ND-CP of April 9, 2007, on Solid Waste Management. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/vie72745.pdf (accessed 29 April 2021).
Government of Viet Nam (2008), Circular No. 121/2008/TT-BTC of December 12, 2008, Guiding Incentive Mechanisms and Financial Supports for Investment in Solid Waste Management. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/vie88473.pdf (accessed 29 April 2021).
Government of Viet Nam (2010), Law on Environmental Protection Tax. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/vie107002.pdf (accessed 3 October 2019).
Government of Viet Nam (2011), Circular No. 12/2011/TT-BTNMT of April 14, 2011, Stipulating Hazardous Waste Management. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/vie105094.pdf (accessed 29 April 2021).
Government of Viet Nam (2014), Decision on Support for the Development of Power Generation Projects using Solid Waste(s) in Viet Nam. http://gizenergy.org.vn/media/app/media/PDF-Docs/Legal-Documents/Solid-Wastes/Decision%2031-2014-QD-TTg%20on%20support%20mechanism%20for%20SW_EN.pdf (accessed 29 April 2021).
Government of Viet Nam (2014), Law on Environmental Protection. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/vie168513.pdf (accessed 3 October 2019).
Government of Viet Nam (2014), The Construction Law. https://hcmiu.edu.vn/wp-content/uploads/2017/09/E38.QH13-Luat-Xay-dung.pdf (accessed 3 October 2019).
Government of Viet Nam (2015), Law on Marine and Island Resources and Environment. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/vie168548.pdf (accessed 3 October 2019).
Government of Viet Nam (2015), Decree on the Management of Wastes and Scraps. http://extwprlegs1.fao.org/docs/pdf/vie168524.pdf (accessed 3 October 2019).
Government of Viet Nam (2020). Environmental Protection Law. https://cms.luatvietnam.vn/Download.aspx?file=uploaded/VIETLAWFILE/2021/2/72_2020_QH14_050221141112.doc (accessed 2 June 2021).
In 2013, the People’s Committee of Hanoi City issued Regulations on Regular Solid Waste Management in Hanoi City Area No. 16/2013/QD-UBND. Solid waste management aims to reduce environmental and health impacts (Article 3). The Department of Construction and the Department of Natural Resources and Environment under the City People’s Committee are responsible for solid waste management. Dumping solid waste on sidewalks and roads and into drainage systems, rivers, lakes, parks, flower gardens, dike systems, and public areas is highly restricted. As inorganic daily-life solid waste, plastics should be collected, transported in a specific approved vehicle, and treated properly (Article 11).
Similar regulations were issued by other local governments.
People’s Committee of Hanoi City (2013), Regulations of Regular Solid Waste Management in Hanoi City Area. https://thuvienphapluat.vn/van-ban/tai-nguyen-moi-truong/Quyet-dinh-16-2013-QD-UBND-Quy-dinh-quan-ly-chat-thai-ran-thong-thuong-Ha-Noi-196423.aspx (accessed 3 October 2019).
Action Plans and Roadmaps
In 2009, Viet Nam adopted the National Strategy on Integrated Solid Waste Management (up to 2025 with a Vision to 2050). Its main objective is to collect, reuse, recycle, and manage waste using progressive technology and to minimize the use of landfills by 2050. Table below summarizes the strategy’s targets.
Table 1. Targets of the National Strategy on Integrated Solid Waste Management to 2025, with a Vision to 2050
Viet Nam : Action Plans and Roadmaps (Table 1)
|Objective||By 2020||By 2025|
|Collection rate of household waste||90%||100%|
|Recycling rate of household waste||85%||90%|
|Collection rate of construction and demolition waste in urban areas||80%||90%|
|Recycling rate of construction and demolition waste in urban areas||30%||60%|
|Reduction rate of plastic bag use in supermarkets||65%||85%|
|Implementation rate of waste separation and recycling facilities at the municipal level||80%||100%|
|Collection rate of non-hazardous industrial waste||90%||100%|
|Reuse and recycling rate of non-hazardous industrial waste||75%||100%|
|Collection rate of solid waste from households in rural areas||70%||90%|
|Collection rate of solid waste from craft villages||80%||100%|
Source: Government of Viet Nam (2009).
In the case of marine plastic pollution, the Government of Viet Nam in 2020 launched the National Action Plan for Management of Marine Plastic Litter by 2030. The plan’s objectives are divided into two main periods (Table 2).
Table 2. Objectives of the National Action Plan on Marine Plastic Debris Management through 2030
Viet Nam : Action Plans and Roadmaps (Table 2)
|Objective||By 2025||By 2030|
|Plastic waste reduction in the sea and the ocean||50%||75%|
|Collection of lost or discarded fishing gear||80%||100%|
|Removal of single-use plastic products in coastal tourist destinations, accommodations, and services||80%||100%|
|Removal of plastic waste in marine protected areas||80%||100%|
|Coverage expansion of annual monitoring and periodical monitoring of marine plastic debris||Conducted in 5 main rivers||Conducted in 11 main rivers|
Table 3. Solutions of the National Action Plan’s Objectives
Viet Nam : Action Plans and Roadmaps (Table 3)
|Solutions||Tasks||Parties in charge|
|Education and behavioural change||
|Collection, separation, storage, transportation, and management of plastic waste from sea-based activities||
|Plastic waste control from source||
|International cooperation in research, application, development, and technology transfer of marine plastic debris treatment||
|Consistent and effective investigation and development of marine plastic litter management system||
Table 4. Objectives of the National Action Plan on Sustainable Consumption and Production (2021–2030)
Viet Nam : Action Plans and Roadmaps (Table 4)
|Develop legal policy for sustainable consumption and production||Enforce the implementation of sustainable consumption and production policies|
|5%–8% reduction of used materials and resources for production process||7%–10% reduction of used materials and resources for production process|
|70% of industrial parks, clusters, and trade villages encourage awareness raising on sustainable consumption and production||100% of industrial parks, clusters, and trade villages encourage awareness raising on sustainable consumption and production|
|80% of provinces and cities promote sustainable lifestyle and consumption||100% of provinces and cities promote sustainable lifestyle and consumption|
|85% of supermarkets and commercial centres promote the distribution and the use of eco-friendly packaging||100% of supermarkets and commercial centres use eco-friendly packaging|
Government of Viet Nam (2009), Decision on Approving the National Strategy of Integrated Solid Waste Management up to 2025, Vision towards 2050. http://www.uncrd.or.jp/content/documents/PM%20Decision%20of%20Approval%20of%20NSISWM%20(Eng).pdf (accessed 3 October 2019).
Government of Viet Nam (2020), National Action Plan for Management of Marine Plastic Litter by 2030. https://www.vn.undp.org/content/dam/vietnam/docs/Publications/Quyet%20dinh%20rac%20thai%20nhua.pdf (accessed 10 May 2021).
Government of Viet Nam (2020). National Action Plan on Sustainable Consumption and Production (2021–2030). https://www.oneplanetnetwork.org/sites/default/files/national_action_plan_on_scp_vietnam_pdf_pdf.pdf (accessed 2 June 2021).