Biodegradable and Compostable Plastics

Knowing the difference between bio-based, biodegradable, and other related materials is fundamental to avoid misinterpretation. Bio-based and biodegradable materials are not similar.  Bio-based materials are fully or partly made from biomass, while biomass is made of biological elements. Since they are made from renewable sources, bio-based materials can balance greenhouse gas and reduce environmental degradation caused by disposal of oil-based polymers. Biodegradable materials can be broken down by bacteria or fungi into water, biomass, and natural gas such as carbon dioxide and methane. The ability to biodegrade depends on temperature, microorganisms, oxygen, and water. Biodegradable plastics  must be separated from conventional plastics for


Prohibition or Levy

Plastic pollution, a major threat to the marine environment (McNicholas and Cotton, 2019), is predicted to worsen by 2025 as a result of rapid population growth and insufficient waste management. If the current condition continues, the oceans will have more plastic than fish by 2050 (World Economy Forum, 2016). The plastic bag is one of the most popular and essential plastic products in modern culture as it is flexible, light, strong, water resistant, and cheap. The plastic bag, however, raises serious concerns due to its long duration of decomposition, low recycle rate, and negative environmental and human health impacts,

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