Waste Management2022-09-07T10:01:02+07:00


Waste Management|

Collection from Waste Generators

The World Bank defines waste collection as transporting waste from where it is produced (settlements, and industrial commercial and institutional areas) to a site for treatment or disposal. Research on a waste collection multi-objective model says that waste collection, although visible municipal work, requires high investment and operational and environmental services cost. Another problem is the unequal collection rate amongst countries. A report from the World Bank shows a 48% collection rate in low-income countries. The figure is even lower (26%) outside urban areas. For instance, the Coordinating Ministry for Maritime Affairs and Investment of Indonesia shows that the percentage of plastic waste leakage

Waste Management|

Preventing Discharge from Specific Sources

Discharges containing plastics, especially microplastics, come from various sources, even uncommon ones. Microplastics are everywhere, spreading through the entire ecosystem. They might be at the bottom of the sea (high-density polymers) and at its surface (low-density polymers), in rainwater, in food, in drinking water, in the air as well as in wastewater. One of the most challenging and pressing issues is the footprint of microplastics across water bodies, which has led to the global marine plastic debris problem. Table 1 lists sources of microplastics in water bodies. Table 1. Sources of Microplastics in Water Bodies

Waste Management|

Preventing Littering

Effects of marine litter on marine life have significantly increased. In 2015, 557 species were reported to be affected by the excessive amount of marine litter. The effects include entanglement, smothering, and ingestion of plastic (Kuhn, Renolledo, and Franeker, 2015). Research on anti-littering behaviour indicates that marine littering is a cultural matter driven by micro or individual factors and macro or social factors. Micro factors are closely related to individual behaviour associated with awareness, perception, attitude, and concern; macro factors are related to policies and legislation influence. At the micro level, many people lack awareness of the environmental impacts of marine

Waste Management|

Proper Treatment and Disposal

Per the hierarchy of waste management, waste can be treated and disposed through five major pathways: reduction, reuse, recycling and composting, energy recovery, and landfill, each of which has its challenges in implementation. Several types of plastic, such as thermoset, for example, cannot be recycled. Unlike conventional thermoplastic, thermoset is highly popular because of its stronger dimensional stability and higher chemical resistance and is used in many automotive industries, adhesives, coatings, shore structures, clean energy production, solar cells, and electronic packaging utensils. Unfortunately, the material cannot be dissolved or melted (Yue et al., 2019). Disposal into landfill is the most

Waste Management|

Waste Reception Facility at Port

Marine litter and pollution have severely damaged the marine environment. Although land-based source contributes about 80% to marine litter, sea-based sources must also be taken into account to directly maintain the marine environment and indirectly protect human health. Marine litter and pollution increase acidity of oceans, chemical contamination of the food chain, and death of marine animals. Thus, provision of reasonably cost-effective port waste reception facilities should be promoted to reduce sea-based marine pollution. The International Convention for the Prevention of Pollution from Ships (MARPOL) has proposed restrictions on waste discharges from ships at sea. The convention contains annexes that introduce the

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