• EPR in Asian Developing Countries

    28 April 2021

    Developing countries show significant differences in their EPR implementation compared with developed ones. As a response to this occurrence, The RKC-MPD team just published an article in Waste Management & Research to explore the challenges of Asian developing countries to apply EPR and the possible measures to overcome them.

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  • Share Your Stories!

    19 January 2021

    Are you a private company operating in one of the ASEAN+3 countries? By using this platform, you can showcase your products, services, or technologies contributing to the reduction of plastic waste and marine plastic debris. Share your stories now!

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  • Waste Management during COVID-19

    09 July 2020

    The RKC-MPD team has recently launched a policy brief titled "Strengthening Waste Management Policies to Mitigate the COVID-19 Pandemic," which highlights the importance of ASEAN countries to strengthen their waste management policies in order to ensure the healthy environment without leaving no one's health behind.

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  • 3-minute Video about the Status of Marine Plastic Issue in ASEAN+3

    22 April 2020

    ERIA presents a 3-minute primer on marine plastic debris in ASEAN+3 countries. The video also provides an insight into ERIA’s Regional Knowledge Centre for Marine Plastic Debris launched on 1 October 2019.

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  • National Framework to Tackle Marine Plastic Debris

    24 November 2019

    To tackle marine plastic debris issue, actions by various ministries in charge of marine plastic debris and others should be coordinated. Various laws, regulations, action plans, and roadmaps should be implemented.

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Various documents emphasising the importance of sharing knowledge and capacity development related to marine plastic debris have been produced by the United Nations, the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), and others. One of them is the ASEAN+3 Marine Plastics Debris Cooperative Action Initiative, which states best use of existing institutions such as Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA), for sharing knowledge and capacity development. The initiative was welcomed by the ASEAN+3 Summit (10 ASEAN Member States, China, Japan, and Republic of Korea) in November 2018. With support from the Government of Japan and others, ERIA established on 01 October 2019 the Regional Knowledge Centre for Marine Plastic Debris (RKC-MPD), an information clearinghouse on marine plastic debris in ASEAN+3 countries.

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ASEAN countries are a major source of marine plastics and have initiated actions to reduce them. Indonesia developed the Indonesia’s Plan of Action on Marine Plastic Debris 2017–2025 in May 2017.

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The Regional Knowledge Centre for Marine Plastic Debris (RKC-MPD) is a clearinghouse for information on marine plastic debris in ASEAN+3 countries. RKC-MPD facilitates networking among stakeholders, raises awareness, promotes innovative actions in each county, and facilitates national and regional cooperation to solve the marine plastic debris problem.

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ERIA and ASEAN Secretariat Joint Forum “ASEAN on Point” on How Policies Can Support the Private Sector in Combatting Marine Plastic Debris

by Ellen Putri Edita, Hendro Putra Johannes, Ayako Mizuno • 21 June 2021

June 17th, 2021, Economic Research Institute for ASEAN and East Asia (ERIA) and ASEAN Secretariat co-hosted a public forum to discuss how policies can support the private sector in combatting marine plastic debris, which marked the fourth event of “ASEAN on Point” webinar series. The forum was held virtually and gathered people from governments, research institutions, academia, international organizations, consultancy agencies, and private sectors.


Regional Knowledge Centre for Marine Plastic Debris of ERIA recognized as a key regional initiative in the newly launched ASEAN Regional Action Plan for Combating Marine Debris

by Ellen Putri Edita • 03 June 2021

May 28th, 2021, the ASEAN Secretariat has officially launched ASEAN Regional Action Plan for Combating Marine Debris in the ASEAN Member States (2021-2025) in a virtual event called “Launch of ASEAN Regional Action Plan on Combating Marine Debris in ASEAN Region”, which was organized with the support of the World Bank. The event was attended by representatives from the ASEAN member states and other related organisations.



National Framework to Tackle Marine Plastic Debris

Solving the issue of marine litter requires the involvement and cooperation of ministries in charge of fishery, coastal and river management, land-based waste management, industries producing and using plastics, recycling industries, and others.

Government Initiatives

To prevent marine plastic litter, various policies, such as reducing the use of single-use plastics, preventing littering, expanding waste collection services, and recycling, have been applied in this region.

Scientific Knowledge

There is still a lack of reliable data and short of scientific knowledge on marine plastic debris. Although we should take some actions, based on the precautionary principle, we also need to enrich scientific knowledge in various fields.



  • Environmental and Sustainability Challenges in the Mekong Subregion

    by Venkatachalam Anbumozhi, Michikazu Kojima, Ellen Putri Edita, Hendro Putra Johannes, and Dian Lutfiana | November 2020

    The Mekong Subregion – Cambodia, the Lao People’s Democratic Republic (Lao PDR), Myanmar, Thailand, and Viet Nam – is not only host to the fastest growing economies in the Association of Southeast Asian Nations (ASEAN), but is also rich in natural resources and biodiversity and has a culturally diverse urban population. Returns from the continued economic growth have raised incomes and improved people’s well-being, but have also resulted in many environmental challenges.

  • Applying the extended producer responsibility towards plastic waste in Asian developing countries for reducing marine plastic debris

    by Hendro Putra Johannes, Michikazu Kojima, Fusanori Iwasaki, Ellen Putri Edita | April 2021

    Applying EPR system for plastic waste in developing countries faces many challenges, such as the existence of a market-based collection system of recyclables, high transportation cost, lack of waste collection services in rural areas, a limited number of facilities to manage certain types of plastic waste, insufficient pollution control and free riding and orphan products. The challenges, furthermore, can be minimised by differentiating the responsibility of producers, focusing on rural and remote areas, involving informal sectors, creating joint facilities in recycling parks, expanding waste management collection services, increasing the use of EPR and minimising free riding.

  • Regional Waste Management – Inter-municipal Cooperation and Public and Private Partnership

    by Michikazu Kojima (editor) | October 2020

    To reduce the risk of COVID-19 and the leakage of plastic waste to the ocean, waste collection and disposal services should be expanded middle and small cities, and rural area. This report shows economies of scale in waste management, reviews regional waste management in Japan, the Philippines, Thailand, and Viet Nam, and identifies some types of regional waste management schemes, including regional waste management with Public Private Partnership.

  • Strengthening Waste Management Policies to Mitigate the COVID-19 Pandemic

    by Michikazu Kojima, Fusanori Iwasaki, Hendro Putra Johannes, Ellen Putri Edita | July 2020

    The coronavirus (COVID-19) pandemic has raised issues with waste management. In ASEAN countries, the increasing amount of medical waste during the pandemic is not in line with the availability of waste management facilities. Furthermore, the amount of plastic waste is also rising because people rely more on food delivery services. In this difficult situation, it is crucial for ASEAN countries to strengthen their waste management policies.

  • Plastic Recycling: Policies and Good Practices in Asia

    by Michikazu Kojima | March 2019

    The need for a circular economy for plastics has become a global concern. Plastic marine litter has been recognised as a global environmental issue, and many countries have introduced policies to reduce single-use plastics. Recycling of plastic waste should also be strengthened to reduce plastic marine litter. This report aims to provide basic information and policies on plastic recycling, including good practices in Asian countries.

  • Sustainable Marine Development

    by Fauziah Zen, Heru Santoso, Maxensius Sambodo, Michikazu Kojima | September 2019

    Indonesia has the largest economic exclusive zone in Asia, and Japan the second largest. Marine resources are their main development assets. Indonesia and Japan rely on marine logistics and fisheries, of which infrastructure and connectivity are important aspects. Both countries are prone to disasters, including tsunamis, and should improve their disaster management. And both countries should improve their waste management to eliminate marine debris and pollution.